Our lab publishes research on (1) Rational Thinking, Decision-Making, and Cognitive Abilities, as well as (2) ADHD and Developmental Psychopathology. Some of our research papers reflect an overlap in these two domains of research, which we mark with an asterisk (*) at the end of the citation.

Table of contents:

Rational Thinking, Decision-Making and Cognitive Abilities



Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2016). The Rationality Quotient (RQ): Toward a Test of Rational Thinking. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

MIT Book Link

Choice Connect Review


Toplak, M. E. & Weller, J. (Editors) (2016). Individual Differences in Judgment and Decision Making: A Developmental Perspective. London: Psychology Press.

Peer-Reviewed Papers

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2016). Real‐world correlates of performance on heuristics and biases tasks in a community sample. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 30, 541-554, DOI:10.1002/bdm.1973

Basile, A. G. & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Four converging measures of temporal discounting and their relationships with intelligence, executive functions, thinking dispositions, and behavioural outcomes. Frontiers in Psychology, 6:782. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00728

Sorge, G. B., Skilling, T. A., & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Intelligence, executive functions, and decision making as predictors of antisocial behavior in an adolescent sample of justice-involved youth and a community comparison group. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making. 28, 477-490, DOI: 10.1002/bdm.1864*

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2014). Rationality, intelligence, and the defining features of Type 1 and Type 2 processing. In J. Sherman, B. Gawronski, & Y. Trope (Eds.), Dual processes in social psychology. New York: Guildford Publications Inc.

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Rational thinking and cognitive sophistication: Development, cognitive abilities, and thinking dispositions. Developmental Psychology, 50(4), 1037-1048. doi:10.1037/a0034910

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Assessing the development of rationality. In H. Markovits (Ed.), The developmental psychology of reasoning and decision-making (pp. 7-35). Psychology Press.

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2014). Assessing miserly information processing: An expansion of the Cognitive Reflection Test. Thinking and Reasoning, 20, 147-168. doi:10.1080/13546783.2013.844729

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2013). Myside bias, rational thinking, and intelligence. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(4), 259-264. doi:10.1177/0963721413480174

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Practitioner review: Do performance-based measures and ratings of executive function assess the same construct? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 54, 131-143. doi:10.1111/jcpp.12001*

Stanovich, K. E., & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Defining features versus incidental correlates of Type 1 and Type 2 processing. Mind and Society, 11, 3-13. doi:10.1007/s11299-011-0093-6

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2012). Education for rational thought. In J. Kirby and M. Lawson (Eds.), Enhancing the quality of learning: Dispositions, instruction, and learning processes (pp. 51-92). New York: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9781139048224.006

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Judgment and decision making in adolescence: Separating intelligence from rationality. In V. F. Reyna, S. Chapman, M. Dougherty, & J. Confrey (Eds.), The adolescent brain: Learning, reasoning, and decision-making (pp. 337-378). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. doi:10.1037/13493-012

Toplak, M. E., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2011). The Cognitive Reflection Test as a predictor of performance on heuristics and biases tasks. Memory & Cognition, 39, 1275-1289. doi:10.3758/s13421-011-0104-1

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The complexity of developmental predictions from dual process models. Developmental Review, 31, 103-118. doi:10.1016/j.dr.2011.07.003

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F. & Toplak, M. E. (2011). The assessment of rational thought. In K. E. Stanovich, Rationality and the reflective mind. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Intelligence and rationality. In R. J. Sternberg & S. B. Kaufman (Eds.), Cambridge handbook of intelligence (pp. 784-826). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/CBO9780511977244.040

Stanovich, K. E., West, R. F., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Individual differences as essential components of heuristics and biases research. In K. Manktelow, D. Over, & S. Elqayam (Eds.), The science of reason (pp. 355-396). New York: Psychology Press.

Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Benoit, A., West, R. F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2010). Decision-making and cognitive abilities: A review of associations between Iowa Gambling Task performance, executive functions, and intelligence. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 562-581. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2010.04.002*

Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2010). Contaminated mindware: Thinking biases of the cognitive miser. Rotman Magazine, Winter, 16-21.

Shuster, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2009). Executive and motivational inhibition: associations with measures of everyday inhibition. Consciousness and Cognition, 18, 471-480. doi:10.1016/j.concog.2009.01.004

West, R. F., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2008). Heuristics and biases as measures of critical thinking: Associations with cognitive ability and thinking dispositions. Journal of Educational Psychology, 100, 930-941. doi:10.1037/a0012842

Stanovich, K. E., Toplak, M. E., & West, R. F. (2008). The development of rational thought: A taxonomy of heuristics and biases. In R. V. Kail (Ed), Advances in Child Development and Behavior (pp. 251-285).San Diego, CA: Elsevier Academic Press. doi:10.1016/S0065-2407(08)00006-2

Wickens, C. M., Toplak, M. E., & Wiesenthal, D. L. (2008). Heuristic and analytic processes as predictors of driving errors, lapses, and violations. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40, 1223-1233. doi:10.1016/j.aap.2008.01.006

Toplak, M. E., Liu, E., Macpherson, R., Toneatto, T., & Stanovich, K. E. (2007). The reasoning skills and thinking dispositions of problem gamblers: A dual-process taxonomy. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 20, 103-124. doi:10.1002/bdm.544*

Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2003). Associations between myside bias on an informal reasoning task and amount of post-secondary education. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 17, 851-860. doi:10.1002/acp.915

Kokis, J. V., Macpherson, R., Toplak, M. E., West, R., F., & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). Heuristic and analytic processing: Age trends and associations with cognitive ability. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 83, 26-52. doi:10.1016/S0022-0965(02)00121-2

Toplak, M. E, & Stanovich, K. E. (2002). The domain specificity and generality of disjunctive reasoning: Searching for a generalizable critical thinking skill. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 197-209. doi:10.1037/0022-0663.94.1.197

ADHD and Developmental Psychopathology

Ilie, Gabriela, Vingilis, E. R., Mann, R. E., Hamilton, H., Toplak, M., Adlaf, E. M., Kolla, N., Ialomiteanu, A., van der Mass, Asbridge, M., Vingilis-Jaremko, L., Rehm, J., & Cusimano, M. D. (2015). The association between traumatic brain injury and ADHD in a Canadian adult sample. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 69, 174-179.

Vingilis, E., Erickson, P.G., Toplak, M. E., Kolla, N. J., Mann, R. E., Seeley, J., vanderMaas, M., & Daigle, D. S. (2015). Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms, comorbidities, substance use, and social outcomes among men and women in a Canadian sample. BioMed Research International.

Sorge, G.B., van der Maas, M., Flora, D.B., Vingilis, E., Mann, R. E., Erickson, P., Jain, U., Kolla, N., Seeley, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2015). Using factor analytic models to examine the association between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms and health-related outcomes in a representative population survey. ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorders, 7(3), 225-235.

Vingilis, E., Mann, R. E. Erickson, P. Toplak, M., Kolla, N. J., and Seeley, J. (2014) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, other mental health problems, substance use and driving:Examination of a population-based, representative Canadian sample. Traffic Injury Prevention, 15:sup1, S1-S9, DOI:10.1080/15389588.2014.926341.

LeGris, J., Toplak, M., & Links, P. S. (2014). Affective decision making in women with Borderline Personality Disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 28, 1-22.*

Shuster, J., Perry, A., Bebko, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2014). Review of factor analytic studies examining symptoms of autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44, 90-110. doi:10.1007/s10803-013-1854-3

LeGris, J., Links, P. S., van Reekum, R., Tannock, R. & Toplak, M. ( 2012). Executive function and suicidal risk in women with Borderline Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Research, 196, 101-108. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2011.10.008

Toplak, M. E., Sorge, G. B., Flora, D. B., Chen, W., Banaschewski, T., Buitelaar, J., Ebstein, R., Eisenberg, J., Franke, B., Gill, M., Miranda, A., Oadea, R. D., Roeyers, H., Rothenberger, A., Sergeant, J., Sonuga-Barke, E., Steinhausen, H. C., Thompson, M., Tannock, R., Asherson, P., & Faraone, S. V. (2012). The hierarchical factor model of ADHD: Invariant across age and national groupings? Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 292-303. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02500.x

Normand, S., Flora, D. B., Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general ADHD factor from a longitudinal general school population study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40, 555-567. doi:10.1007/s10802-011-9584-5

Gibbins, C., Toplak, M. E., Flora, D. B., Weiss, M. D., & Tannock, R. (2012). Evidence for a general factor model of ADHD in adults. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 635-644. doi:10.1177/1087054711416310

Connors, L. L., Connolly, J., & Toplak, M. E. (2012). Self–reported inattention in early adolescence in a community sample. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16, 60-70. doi:10.1177/1087054710379734

DeBono, T., Hosseini, A., Cairo, C., Ghelani, K., Tannock, R., & Toplak, M. E. (2011). Written expression performance in adolescents with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Reading and Writing. doi:10.1007/s11145-011-9325-8

Rogers, M, Hwang, H., Toplak, M. E., Weiss, M., & Tannock, R. (2011). Inattention, working memory, and academic achievement in adolescents referred for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Child Neuropsychology, 17, 444-458. doi:10.1080/09297049.2010.544648

Toplak, M. E., Pitch, A., Flora, D. B., Iwenofu, L., Ghelani, K., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2009). The unity and diversity of inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity in ADHD: Evidence for a general factor with separable dimensions. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 37, 1137-1150. doi:10.1007/s10802-009-9336-y

Toplak, M. E. (2009). Comment on: Am J Psychiatry, 2008 (June), 165, 721-730. Osmotically released methylphenidate is more effective than atomoxetine in children and adolescents with ADHD. Evidence-Based Mental Health, 12, 19. doi:10.1136/ebmh.12.1.19

Sorge, G. B., Moore, T., & Toplak, M. E. (2009). Comparing the content of parenting self-help programs to evidence-based parenting programs: Understanding the efficacy of self-help advice. The Scientific Review of Mental Health Practice, 7, 26-36.

Toplak, M. E., Bucciarelli, S., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2009). Executive functions: Is performance related to ratings in adolescents with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)? Child Neuropsychology, 15, 53-72. doi:10.1080/09297040802070929

Toplak, M. E., Connors, L., Shuster, J., Knezevic, B., & Parks, S. (2008). Review of cognitive, cognitive-behavioral, and neural-based interventions for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 801-823. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2007.10.008

Toplak, M. E., Dockstader, C., & Tannock, R. (2006). Temporal information processing in ADHD: Findings to date and new methods. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 151, 15-29. doi:10.1016/j.jneumeth.2005.09.018

Toplak, M. E., Jain, U., & Tannock, R. (2005). Decision-making and cognitive abilities in adolescents with Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Behavioral and Brain Functions. 1:8. doi:10.1186/1744-9081-1-8*

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005). Tapping and anticipation performance in Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Perceptual and Motor Skills, 100, 659-675. doi:10.2466/PMS.100.3.659-675

Toplak, M. E., & Tannock, R. (2005). Time perception: Modality and duration effects in Attention-Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 33, 639-654. doi:10.1007/s10802-005-6743-6

Stringer, R., Toplak, M. E., & Stanovich, K. E. (2004). Differential relationships between RAN performance, behaviour ratings, and executive function measures: Searching for a double dissociation. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17, 891-914. doi:10.1007/s11145-004-2770-x

Toplak, M. E., Rucklidge, J. J., Hetherington, R., John, S. C. F, & Tannock, R. (2003). Time perception deficits in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 44, 888-903. doi:10.1111/1469-7610.00173